This study concerns on metaphorical expressions in the book Ngawur Karena Benar written by Sujiwo Tejo and their nonliteral meaning. In finding the metaphorical expressions, researchers used the theory of metaphor. Otherwise, in analyzing the nonliteral meaning, it was used relevance approach. According to relevance theory, the process of interpreting a metaphorical expression comprises the following steps: decoding the linguistic input by arraying possible meanings of an utterance and drawing inferences by taking into account both the results of linguistic decoding. The problems are to answer: 1) what metaphorical expressions can be found in the book Ngawur Karena Benar by Sujiwo Tejo, 2) what are the meanings of the metaphorical expressions used in the book. This study applied qualitative research method by employing document analysis approach to get detailed data description from the object analysis. Results of this study revealed that the metaphorical expressions are used to deliver a complicated circumstance in revealing the real condition. In line with the finding, the nonliteral meaning of the metaphorical expression needs an intralinguistic that is the information we can receive by decoding the linguistic input while the extra-linguistic factor is the assumptions taken from context by drawing inferences.
According to Argente and Payrató (1991, p. 467), understanding pragmatics in a very general sense, simply as the study of language use, we should be concerned, as well as in sociolinguistic analysis, with: (a) macro-sociolinguistic processes of maintenance and shift, (b) the emergence of contact varieties attached to specific social groups (pidgins, L2 vaneties), and (c) micro sociolinguistic processes of interaction, where particular language choices are manifested (for instance, code-switching). If we understand pragmatics in a more traditional restricted sense, as the study of language usage as it is produced by languages users, the pragmatic approach give entrance to the subjects in our analysis of linguistic facts, that is to say, it interprets these facts taking account of the speakers’ values, attitudes, and goals. Although this conception is mainly oriented towards microsociolinguistic processes, it further allows us to conceive of macrosociolinguistic processes as the result of the speakers’ cumulative choices and actions. Taken like that, language maintenance and language shift may be viewed as a consequence of the adaptation of some groups of users to changing sociocultural circumstances through language use continuity or disruption. Generally, pragmatic approach is an approach to literary criticism that shows reader’s impressions towards literature work at a certain period of time or era. Whereas according to competent experts, pragmatic approach is defined as follows. First, Teeuw in 1994 defined pragmatic approach theory as a knowledge of pragmatic study in the literature that stresses the reader’s dimension as a catcher and giver on the meaning of literature work. Second, Relix Vedika in Poland defined pragmatic approach as like artifacts which being resurrected by the reader as a concrete process. Third, Dawse and User in 1960 defined it as the reader’s intervention to literature work determined by known as “Horizon Reception” that affects on literature itself. This kind of approach adheres to the principle that good literature is providing enjoyment and theorem for the reader. Therefore, it combines the elements of solace and didactic. The utilization of this approach has to deal with the relativity concept of magnificence and didactic value. Every generation in any era required to tell this magnificence value. But it does not mean the interpretation is a mere subjective.
Studies of metaphor have taken on an absolutely new look ever since 1980s, evidenced by Metaphors We Live by collaborated by Lakoff and Johnson cited by Tendahl (2009) which has rocked to the core studies of metaphor in linguistic field, attributing to their interpretation of metaphor system in the line of cognition named modern metaphor and proposes that metaphor is a matter of thought and action rather than a device of poetic imagination and the rhetoric flourish. Kovecses (1986) presents a demonstration that emotions such as anger, pride and love are conceptualized structure in everyday language. All these studies illustrate the cognitive idea of metaphor, i.e. metaphor mediates human understanding and world view (Lan, 2005). The book Ngawur Karena Benar by Tejo (2012) tells the condition of Indonesia from the aspects of the economy, socio-culture, the basic principle of Indonesia, low quality of human resource, and other aspects. In this book, he interprets the problems found in Indonesia uniquely. He teases those issues by insinuation and allusion using a story from pewayangan, using puppetry names instead of the names of the real actors. This book is a collection of his writings in various national mass media. What makes this book special to be analyzed is the existence of the object matter variety of linguistic branches study. This study is expected to be beneficial for enriching teaching material on metaphorical in context expression since the data are taken from the book which contains many metaphorical expressions. It is also expected to broaden the knowledge of linguistic students about metaphorical expressions in literary work. This research could be an important reference for students in learning metaphor expression and the meaning of interpretation because it has passed an analysis process. At the same time, it could be used as a reference for the following linguistics researchers who analyze the same topic.
Related to the characteristics of metaphor, different perceptive metaphors certainly do not perform independently, as Lakoff and Johnson cited by Tendahl (2009) placed, metaphorical entailments classify coherent system or the concepts of metaphorical and a compatible coherent system of metaphorical phrase for those construct.
How to cite this paper: Hakim, M. A. R., & Medina, S. (2017). Metaphorical Expressions in the Book Ngawur Karena Benar by Sujiwo Tejo: A Pragmatic Approach. Journal on English as a Foreign Language, 7(1).